https://preview.redd.it/urpoegyjy2p51.png?width=1153&format=png&auto=webp&s=fa9af77daf73293714d33e7266aedda0a109e2b2submitted by bbvedf to u/bbvedf [link] [comments]
Bitcoin SV (Satoshi Vision). Un fork de un fork del Bitcoin Core (BTC) a partir de las discrepancias en escalabilidad y tamaño de bloque.
Veamos qué dice Coinpaprika:
Bitcoin SV – is a new coin splitted of Bitcoin Cash blockchain on 15 November 2018. Four fundamental pillars form the basis of Bitcoin SV’s roadmap to create the one blockchain for the world: stability, scalability, security, and safe instant transactions (a.k.a 0-confirmation). The Bitcoin SV project was created at the request of and sponsored by Antiguan-based CoinGeek Mining, with development work initiated by nChain. The project is also owned by the Antiguan-based bComm Association on behalf of the global BCH (SV) community, and the Bitcoin SV code is made available under the open source MIT license.Qué tiene de bueno BSV? Estabilidad, escalabilidad, seguridad y transacciones seguras e instantáneas. Yo no tengo queja con ninguna de ellas. Las transferencias son muy rápidas (segundos) y con una fee razonable. Incluso asumidas en muchos casos por el proveedor.
La escalabilidad (banca) y el tamaño de bloque (multimedia) serán fundamentales a futuro.
“The existing Visa credit card network processes about 15 million internet purchases per day worldwide. Bitcoin can already scale much larger than that with existing hardware for a fraction of the cost. It never really hits a scale ceiling.” – Satoshi Nakamoto (April 2009)https://preview.redd.it/w6voga5ly2p51.jpg?width=2256&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=c08304e64764e01515c379b8d9bcac35f3c7c3f4
BTC podrá seguir añadiendo capas paralelas, parches y demás que ya contempla BSV de base. No sé si es una solución que pueda alargarse en el tiempo, por lo que no parece que compitan en la misma liga. Queda por ver si complementarias o excluyentes …
Qué tiene de malo BSV? Es otro proyecto más? Si bien los números y la visión es ganadora, no siempre lo mejor es lo más extendido ni lo más adoptado. Lo peor que tiene BSV … es que no es BTC. Ni BCH. Hay multitud de haters atacando el proyecto y a su promotor principal Craig Wright. Autoproclamado como Satoshi Nakamoto, el promotor está envuelto en líos judiciales en el caso Kleiman (su socio fallecido) en el que los herederos de éste reclaman una fortuna (estimada en 1,1 millones de BTC) de cuando trabajaban conjuntamente. Más info:
https://es.cointelegraph.com/news/craig-wright-must-prove-access-to-11m-btc-fortune-by-april-17Noticias como ésa, unida a los haters de profesión (que lógicamente defienden “lo suyo”), ha convertido a BSV en una moneda controvertida que no deja indiferente a nadie. Para ver un ejemplo claro, Binance lo delistó arrastrado por la numerosa comunidad que atacaba a Craig Wright. Sin embargo, las pools de esa misma Binance están minando BSV mayoritariamente porque es una moneda rentable.
BSV no parece una moneda especulativa, ni intradía. Sigue las variaciones del mercado, con subidas y bajadas locas (como todas), pero apunta más a un largo plazo. Cinco, diez años.
Más info: https://bitcoinsv.com/
"The guy is straight out lying. There is guaranteed no missing tx as the data was collected directly from the source." (source)
"I also had these data points and went through them to remove non-retail transactions, on both TravelbyBit and HULA." (source)He admits to have removed non-BCH tx by "Game Ranger" because he considers them non-retail (source). He also implies they might be involved in money laundering and that TBB might fail their AML obligations in processing Game Ranger's transactions (source).
"The website only shows transactions from the last 7 days and then they disappear. No way for anyone to access stats beyond that." (source)he felt confident to claim that I would be
unable to provide a source for the [missing] data and/or prove that that data was not already included in the report. (source)Luckily for us Hayden Otto seems to dislike his competitor TravelByBit so much that he attempted to reframe Bitcoin's RBF feature as a vulnerability specific to TBB PoS system (source).
"You can literally access it from a public URL in the Web browser. There is no login or anything required, just type in the name of the merchant." (source)As of yet it is unclear if this is intentional by TBB or if Hayden Ottos followed the rules of responsible disclosure before publishing this kind of data leak.
|TBB wo. Game Ranger||$5,407|
|TBB according to Hayden||$3,737|
|1||17 Sep 19 09:28||LTD Espresso||Lightning||Unable to find merchant history.||4.50||4.50|
|2||17 Sep 19 09:40||LTD Espresso||Binance Coin||Unable to find merchant history.||4.50||9.00|
|3||17 Sep 19 13:22||Josh's IGA Murray Bridge West||Ether||0x40fd53aa...b6de43c531||4.60||13.60|
|4||17 Sep 19 13:23||Nom Nom Korean Eatery||Lightning||lnbc107727...zkcqvvgklf||16.00||29.60|
|5||17 Sep 19 13:24||Nom Nom Korean Eatery||Lightning||lnbc100994...mkspwddgqw||15.00||44.60|
|6||17 Sep 19 14:02||Nom Nom Korean Eatery||Binance Coin||bnb1w5mwu9...552thl4ru5||30.00||74.60|
|7||17 Sep 19 15:19||Dollars and Sense (Fortitude Valley)||Lightning||lnbc134780...93cpanyxfg||2.00||76.60|
|8||17 Sep 19 15:34||Steph's Cafe||Binance Coin||bnb124hcjy...ss3pz9y3r8||57.50||134.10|
|9||17 Sep 19 19:37||The Stand Desserts||Binance Coin||bnb13f58s9...qqc7fxln7s||18.00||152.10|
|10||17 Sep 19 19:59||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc575880...48cpl0z06q||8.50||160.60|
|11||17 Sep 19 20:00||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc575770...t8spzjflym||8.50||169.10|
|12||17 Sep 19 20:13||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc202980...lgqp5ha8f4||3.00||172.10|
|13||17 Sep 19 20:21||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc577010...decq7r4p05||8.50||180.60|
|14||17 Sep 19 20:24||Fat Dumpling||Lightning||lnbc217145...9dsqpjjr6g||32.10||212.70|
|15||17 Sep 19 20:31||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc574530...wvcpp3pcen||8.50||221.20|
|16||17 Sep 19 20:33||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc540660...rpqpzgk8z0||8.00||229.20|
|17||17 Sep 19 20:37||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc128468...r8cqq50p5c||19.00||248.20|
|18||17 Sep 19 20:39||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc135220...cngp2zq6q4||2.00||250.20|
|19||17 Sep 19 20:45||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc574570...atcqg738p8||8.50||258.70|
|20||17 Sep 19 20:51||Fat Dumpling||Lightning||lnbc414190...8hcpg79h9a||61.20||319.90|
|21||17 Sep 19 20:53||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc135350...krqqp3cz8z||2.00||321.90|
|22||17 Sep 19 20:58||The Stand Desserts||Bitcoin||17MrHiRcKz...ZxydX8raU9||28.00||349.90|
|23||17 Sep 19 21:02||The Stand Desserts||Bitcoin||1Hwy8hCBff...iEh5fBsCWK||10.00||359.90|
|24||17 Sep 19 21:03||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc743810...dvqqnuunjq||11.00||370.90|
|25||17 Sep 19 21:04||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc114952...2vqpclm87p||17.00||387.90|
|26||17 Sep 19 21:10||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc169160...lpqqqt574c||2.50||390.40|
|27||17 Sep 19 21:11||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc575150...40qq9yuqmy||8.50||398.90|
|28||17 Sep 19 21:13||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc947370...qjcp3unr33||14.00||412.90|
|29||17 Sep 19 21:15||The Stand Desserts||Binance Coin||bnb1tc2vva...xppes5t7d0||16.00||428.90|
|30||17 Sep 19 21:16||Giardinetto||Binance Coin||bnb1auyep2...w64p6a6dlk||350.00||778.90|
|31||17 Sep 19 21:25||The Stand Desserts||BCH||3H2iJaKNXH...5sxPk3t2tV||7.00||785.90|
|32||17 Sep 19 21:39||The Stand Desserts||Binance Coin||bnb17r7x3e...avaxwumc58||8.00||793.90|
|33||17 Sep 19 21:47||The Stand Desserts||BCH||32kuPYT1tc...uFQwgsA5ku||18.00||811.90|
|34||17 Sep 19 21:52||The Stand Desserts||BCH||3ELPvxtCSy...4QzvfVJsNZ||36.00||847.90|
|35||17 Sep 19 21:56||The Stand Desserts||Lightning||lnbc677740...acsp04sjeg||10.00||857.90|
|36||17 Sep 19 22:04||The Stand Desserts||BCH||38b4wHg9cg...9L2WXC2BSK||54.00||911.90|
|37||17 Sep 19 22:16||The Stand Desserts||Binance Coin||bnb14lylhs...x6wz7kjzp5||18.00||929.90|
|38||17 Sep 19 22:21||The Stand Desserts||BCH||3L8SK3Hr7u...F3htdSPxfL||90.00||1019.90|
|39||17 Sep 19 22:30||The Stand Desserts||Binance Coin||bnb19w6tle...774uknv57t||5.00||1024.90|
|40||17 Sep 19 22:48||The Stand Desserts||BCH||3Qag8c4UYg...9EYuWzGjhs||8.00||1032.90|
(1) Proper multi-signature cold wallet storage.
(a) Each private key is the personal and legal responsibility of one person - the “signatory”. Signatories have special rights and responsibilities to protect user assets. Signatories are trained and certified through a course covering (1) past hacking and fraud cases, (2) proper and secure key generation, and (3) proper safekeeping of private keys. All private keys must be generated and stored 100% offline by the signatory. If even one private keys is ever breached or suspected to be breached, the wallet must be regenerated and all funds relocated to a new wallet.
(b) All signatories must be separate background-checked individuals free of past criminal conviction. Canadians should have a right to know who holds their funds. All signing of transactions must take place with all signatories on Canadian soil or on the soil of a country with a solid legal system which agrees to uphold and support these rules (from an established white-list of countries which expands over time).
(c) 3-5 independent signatures are required for any withdrawal. There must be 1-3 spare signatories, and a maximum of 7 total signatories. The following are all valid combinations: 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7.
(d) A security audit should be conducted to validate the cold wallet is set up correctly and provide any additional pertinent information. The primary purpose is to ensure that all signatories are acting independently and using best practices for private key storage. A report summarizing all steps taken and who did the audit will be made public. Canadians must be able to validate the right measures are in place to protect their funds.
(e) There is a simple approval process if signatories wish to visit any country outside Canada, with a potential whitelist of exempt countries. At most 2 signatories can be outside of aligned jurisdiction at any given time. All exchanges would be required to keep a compliant cold wallet for Canadian funds and have a Canadian office if they wish to serve Canadian customers.
(2) Regular and transparent solvency audits.
(a) An audit must be conducted at founding, after 3 months of operation, and at least once every 6 months to compare customer balances against all stored cryptocurrency and fiat balances. The auditor must be known, independent, and never the same twice in a row.
(b) An audit report will be published featuring the steps conducted in a readable format. This should be made available to all Canadians on the exchange website and on a government website. The report must include what percentage of each customer asset is backed on the exchange, and how those funds are stored.
(c) The auditor will independently produce a hash of each customer's identifying information and balance as they perform the audit. This will be made publicly available on the exchange and government website, along with simplified instructions that each customer can use to verify that their balance was included in the audit process.
(d) The audit needs to include a proof of ownership for any cryptocurrency wallets included. A satoshi test (spending a small amount) or partially signed transaction both qualify.
(e) Any platform without 100% reserves should be assessed on a regular basis by a government or industry watchdog. This entity should work to prevent any further drop, support any private investor to come in, or facilitate a merger so that 100% backing can be obtained as soon as possible.
(3) Protections for hot wallets and transactions.
(a) A standardized list of approved coins and procedures will be established to constitute valid cold storage wallets. Where a multi-sig process is not natively available, efforts will be undertaken to establish a suitable and stable smart contract standard. This list will be expanded and improved over time. Coins and procedures not on the list are considered hot wallets.
(b) Hot wallets can be backed by additional funds in cold storage or an acceptable third-party insurance provider with a comprehensive coverage policy.
(c) Exchanges are required to cover the full balance of all user funds as denominated in the same currency, or double the balance as denominated in bitcoin or CAD using an established trading rate. If the balance is ever insufficient due to market movements, the firm must rectify this within 24 hours by moving assets to cold storage or increasing insurance coverage.
(d) Any large transactions (above a set threshold) from cold storage to any new wallet addresses (not previously transacted with) must be tested with a smaller transaction first. Deposits of cryptocurrency must be limited to prevent economic 51% attacks. Any issues are to be covered by the exchange.
(e) Exchange platforms must provide suitable authentication for users, including making available approved forms of two-factor authentication. SMS-based authentication is not to be supported. Withdrawals must be blocked for 48 hours in the event of any account password change. Disputes on the negligence of exchanges should be governed by case law.
Written by Shuyao Kongsubmitted by CoinExcom to btc [link] [comments]
Published by decrypt.co
An interview with Haipo Yang, a crypto OG who’s trying to reposition his Bitcoin Cash-based CoinEx exchange. And more, in this week’s da bing.
Haipo Yang, founder of ViaBTC, one of the largest mining pools in the world, and CoinEx, a crypto exchange known for its focus on Bitcoin Cash-based trading, is a well-known but relatively quiet character in China’s crypto circle. Typically, Yang doesn’t talk that much about his journey launching the mining pool, nor about CoinEx, which launched in December 2017.
And he almost never speaks about his fervent support for BCH, a hard fork of Bitcoin, and his now even more enthusiastic belief in BSV.
Yet that’s changing of late. Yang has been more active in recent months, participating in interviews about CoinEx and tweeting more frequently on Weibo, China’s Twitter. He’s been making controversial statements predicting the death of BTC, while supporting BCH and BSV on social media.
Recently, Yang told me that as a developer rather than a business person, he’s never been comfortable speaking in public. However he’s making an effort now to help publicize his renovation of CoinEx. So, for this week’s da bing, I decided to chat with him and get a peek into the mind of a veteran crypto entrepreneur who’s trying to make a personal, as well as a platform, comeback.
CoinEx’s golden opportunityThe first hard fork of Bitcoin occurred in August, 2017 and created a new cryptocurrency called Bitcoin Cash. The fork was prompted by partisans, including Yang, who wanted bigger block sizes on the blockchain — the basic idea was that bigger blocks would enable more transactions per second and make Bitcoin Cash something people would actually use to buy things, rather than Bitcoin’s more commonly perceived use as a store of value.
Yang added a tremendous amount of value to the mining scene in China. As a technical founder with has years of experience in big tech firms such as Tencent, Yang is proud of his #buidl skills. He developed most of the code in the early days of VicBTC, which became one of the biggest mining pools to this day.
Not satisfied with owning just a mining pool,Yang conceived of CoinEx, which was born in December of that year, specifically to carry on the mission of the newly forked Bitcoin Cash blockchain. As he got swept up in Bitcoin Cash enthusiasm, he even said that “BCH is bitcoin.”
CoinEx’s strategy was BCH-focused from day one; BCH was its base currency, meaning you could use it to buy and sell other currencies, such as Ethereum and Litecoin.
Interestingly, Jihan Wu, the co-founder of Bitcoin Exchange — himself a famous BCH supporter — was a big investor in the exchange. That made me wonder why he, Yang, and many other OG crypto miners, were so passionate about BCH. Was it just about bigger block sizes?
“Bigger block size means more users and use cases,” Yang explained. The move to bigger block sizes was attractive to miners because they would facilitate more transactions. Miners make money on transaction fees, as well as mining blocks. Likewise, the network would arguably be more useful to people, who were looking for digital cash for every day use.
That especially resonated with many early hardcore Bitcoiners. Said Yang: “We really believe that Bitcoin should be a P2P cash vehicle rather than a store of value.”
This view probably sounds outdated to people who believe that Bitcoin’s value as cash is long gone, with solutions such as Lightning Network fulfilling that role. Instead, the new narrative for Bitcoin resides in its value, rather than utility. Yet Yang believed that the forked network would create far more opportunity
“We could invite influential companies to establish nodes and contribute to the network. This cannot be done with the original Bitcoin architecture,” he said.
CoinEx pivotsBut from its inception, CoinEx struggled with adoption and was dwarfed by the bigger exchanges. Part of that had to do with the fact that BCH and “Bitcoin Satoshi’s Vision,” another Bitcoin hard fork, were both controversial. Critics pointed out that these networks are centralized in a few big mining pools, and 51% attacks are not out of the question.
So over time, though Yang’s exchange still maintains strong support for BCH and BSV, it began to add support for all the major currencies.
Finally, in January of this year, it announced a major upgrade, of… well, just about everything. It started to offer futures trading, leveraged trading, options trading, and over 100 token projects available to traders. It even rolled out its own blockchain, “CoinEx Chain” to support a new DEX, “CoinEx DEX.”
The seemingly sudden publicity of CoinEx should not come as a surprise, then. As BCH/BSV was being marginalized, Yang shifted his focus. He’s now trying to ride the wave of building a bigger, more dynamic exchange.
“Crypto exchanges are where value is discovered,” Yang told me.
CoinEx: TNGBuilding an exchange isn’t done overnight, nor is re-building one. CoinEx is still competing with the giants such as Binance.
However Yang thinks his exchange will thrive by zigging when his competitors zag. As usual, CoinEx is taking a slightly different route, he told me.
Like what? “We will be listing 小币种,” he said, using the expression for “small token projects.” I cannot help but wonder if these “small token projects” are simply shitcoins, the trading of which is certainly not new.
Indeed, Yang said that he’s banking on the success of his new, public blockchain. “We are building a CoinEx Chain, a layer one protocol for DEX alone. Using our public blockchain, anyone can issue any token, at any time,” he said. He described the blockchain as “a real decentralized, token-issuance and transaction platform.”
This is the core of Yang’s plan and vision. He believes that centralized exchanges will be a bottleneck for crypto adoption because it contradicts crypto’s nature as a completely free and open infrastructure. Essentially anyone should be able to launch a token and trade it with anyone. Only by building DEXes can we achieve full decentralization, he says.
The Religious nature of Bitcoin, and forked BitcoinIt’s his belief that Bitcoin should adhere to Satoshi’s original vision that led Yang to send yet another controversial tweet last week, which I will translate: “The early days of Bitcoin expansion are similar to religion. The religious fervor brings prosperity to the industry.”
By extension, Yang believes that the next generation of Bitcoin should provoke a similar “religious” fervor. That’s why he has slowly become more of a BSV advocate than a fan of Bitcoin Cash. Yang believes that “BSV has more religious connotations, despite its negative image.” (As most crypto people know, the controversial Craig Wright, who claims to be Satoshi Nakamoto, led the hard fork which created BSV. Consequently it is often met with skepticism and derision.)
“The early days of Bitcoin expansion are similar to religion,” said Yang. “The religious fervor brings prosperity to the industry.”
Crypto is famous for its tribalism. Many people choose one camp over another not for practical reasons but because of simple faith. Talking to Yang and reading his tweet brings a historic texture to the Bitcoin narrative. But crypto cannot survive on religion alone. One has to build. Hash might have been worshipped in the old days but now the crypto religion is all about the size of the congregation.
Click here to register on CoinEx!
submitted by Joe-M-4 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]
EXPERIMENT - Tracking 2019 Top Ten Cryptocurrencies – Month Seventeen - UP 43%
Full blog post with all the tables here.tl;dr - This is the 17th monthly update on the 2019 Top Ten Experiment. Ethereum up the most in May, plus got a shout out from J.K. Rowling, so it obviously won the month. Overall, BTC in first place since January 2019, BSV in second place. Half of the 2019 Top Ten Portfolio is up at least +50%. XRP is worst performing. Total $3k (3 x $1k) investments the 2018, 2019, and 2020 Top Ten are up +3.5%, but similar approach with US stocks market would have yielded +10%.
The Experiment:Instead of hypothetically tracking cryptos, I made an actual $1000 investment, $100 in each of the Top 10 cryptocurrencies by market cap on the 1st of January 2018. The result? The 2018 Top Ten portfolio ended 2018 down 85%, my $1000 worth only $150. I then repeated the experiment on the 1st of January 2019 with the new 2019 Top Ten cryptos, then again in 2020.
Think of the Top Ten Experiments as a lazy man’s Index Fund (no weighting or rebalancing), less technical, but hopefully still a proxy for the market as a whole – or at the very least an interesting snapshot of the 2018, 2019, and 2020 crypto space. I am trying to keep this project simple and accessible for beginners and those looking to get into crypto but maybe not quite ready to jump in yet. I try not to take sides or analyze, but rather attempt to report in a detached manner letting the numbers speak for themselves.
This is not investing advice – as a matter of fact, the vast majority of the reports will show that the Top Ten approach under performs other strategies. This experiment is designed to be documentary in nature, describing a specific period in cryptocurrency history.
The Rules:Buy $100 of each the Top 10 cryptocurrencies on January 1st, 2018, 2019, and 2020. Hold only. No selling. No trading. Report monthly.
Month Seventeen – UP 43%Unlike April’s all green month, May was more mixed. That said, the gains outweighed the losses this month in the 2019 Top Ten Portfolio.
Question of the month:In May, Reddit launched two Ethereum-based tokens on the Cryptocurrency and FortNiteBR subreddits. What are the Cryptocurrency token called?
Scroll down for the answer.
Ranking and March Winners and LosersBesides Stellar (down two spots to #13) and Tron (down one from #16 to #17) every other crypto was locked in place.
Speaking of Stellar and Tron, they are still the only two cryptos to have dropped out of the 2019 Top Ten since January 1st, 2019. They have been replaced by Binance Coin and Tezos.
May Winners – Ethereum ended the month up +16% and got a shout out from J.K. Rowling, so it obviously won May. BTC came in a close second this month, up +14%.
May Losers – A tight battle for the basement this month with BSV (down -3.9%) edging out XRP (down -3.7%) for the bottom spot.
Overall update – BTC increases lead over second place BSV, XRP still worst performingAhead until just last month, BSV lost a lot of ground to BTC in May. Bitcoin is now up +168% since January 2019 compared to BSV‘s +116% gain. That initial $100 investment in BTC? Now worth $273.
As was the case last month, 50% of the 2019 Top Ten cryptos are up at least +50% since the beginning of the experiment.
At the other end, XRP continues to struggle, now down -41% since January 2019.
Total Market Cap for the entire cryptocurrency sector:The overall crypto market added about $35B in May, and is now near August 2019 levels. It is up +123% since January 2019.
Bitcoin dominance:BitDom was steady again in May. This marks the third straight month it’s been stuck at around 65% For context, the range since the beginning of the experiment in January 2019 has been between 50%-70%.
Overall return on investment since January 1st, 2019:The 2019 Top Ten Portfolio gained about $65 in May. After the initial $1000 investment, the 2019 group of cryptos is worth $1,431, up about +43%.
Here’s a look at the ROI over the life of the first seventeen months of the experiment, month by month:
Almost completely green for the 2019 Top Ten, a welcome change from the all red table you’ll see in the 2018 experiment. As you can see, every month except the first month ends in positive territory. At the lowest point, the 2019 Top Ten portfolio was down -9%, at the highest point, up +114% (May 2019).
How does the 2019 Top Ten Experiment compare to the parallel projects?
After a $3000 investment in the 2018, 2019, and 2020 Top Ten Cryptocurrencies, my portfolios are worth $3,104.
That’s up about +3.5% for the combined portfolios. Better than a few months ago (aka the zombie apocalypse) where it was down -24%, but not yet back at January (+13%) or February (+6%) levels.
How does this compare to traditional markets?
How does the 2019 Top Ten portfolio compare US stock market?Excellent question, I’m glad you asked. And you’re in luck, I’m also tracking the S&P 500 as part of my experiment to have a comparison point with other popular investments options. Despite the fact that the world seemed to be on fire, May 2020 saw the continued rebound of the stock market. It’s now up +22% since the start of the 2019 Experiment.
As a reminder (or just scroll up) the 2019 Top Ten portfolio is returning +43% over the same time period, which is about double the S&P 500.
The initial $1k investment I put into crypto would be worth $1,220 had it been redirected to the S&P 500 in January 2019.
But what if I took the same world’s-slowest-dollar-cost-averaging/$1,000-per-year-in-January approach with the S&P 500? It would yield the following:
After three $1,000 investments into an S&P 500 index fund in January 2018, 2019, and 2020, my portfolio would be worth $3,310.
That $3,310 is up over+10% since January 2018, compared to the $3,104 value (+3.5%) of the combined Top Ten Crypto Experiment Portfolios.
That’s about a 7% difference in favor of the stock market. Last month, there was only a 3% difference, the month before, the gap was 13% (all in favor of the stock market).
Implications/Observations:The difference between the 2019 Top Ten crypto group and the overall crypto market is stark. Since January 2019, the overall market has gained +123% compared to the 2019 Top Ten crypto group which has gained +43%. This is an absolutely massive 80% gap. A +43% return is solid compared to the stock market, but it also implies that an investor would have done much better picking different cryptos or investing in the entire market instead of focusing only on the Top Ten. There are a few examples of this approach outperforming the overall market in this 2019 Top Ten Crypto Experiment, but the cases are few and far between.
The 2018 Top Ten portfolio, on the other hand, has never outperformed the overall market, at least not in the first twenty-nine months of that Experiment.
For the most recent 2020 Top Ten group, the opposite had been true: the 2020 Top Ten had easily outperformed the overall market 100% of the time…until this month.
Conclusion:The BTC halving event came and went in May and crypto markets shrugged. As the world continues to change because of COVID-19, what will be crypto’s place when we finally emerge on the other side?
Final word: Please take care of yourselves, your families, and your communities. Stay safe out there.
Thanks for reading and for supporting the experiment. I hope you’ve found it helpful. I continue to be committed to seeing this process through and reporting along the way. Feel free to reach out with any questions and stay tuned for progress reports. Keep an eye out for the original 2018 Top Ten Crypto Index Fund Experiment and the recently launched 2020 Top Ten Experiment.
And the Answer is…A) Moons
According CryptoCurrency, Moons represent ownership in the subreddit, “tokens on the Ethereum blockchain controlled entirely by you, and they can be freely transferred, tipped, and spent in CryptoCurrency*.*” Check out this post for more details.
submitted by Crypto_Browser to CryptoBrowser_EN [link] [comments]
Crypto Experts Are Considering The Market-Wide Sell-Off As The Primary Cause Of The Market Crash
The crypto market saw yet another wave of downward motion, mostly due to traders selling their Bitcoin stash. Early on March 12, the price per BTC fell 25% to trade as low as $5,959.67. On some exchanges, Bitcoin saw lows of around $5,200, which further reduced investor enthusiasm.
This is the second substantial price dip for the last seven days, wiping off nearly 30% of the total market capitalization. The total market capitalization of the crypto sector dipped with $50 billion, almost leveling it with the 24h trading volumes of around 164 billion, according to data from CoinMarketCap.
Some crypto portals link the sell-off with the spreading of nCoV-19 disease, which caused widespread turbulence amid the traditional finance sector. “Cryptocurrencies, and Bitcoin, in particular, are entering a short-term bearish market, as investors are concerned about Bitcoin not managing to act as a safe-haven asset,” Mathew Dibb, co-founder of Stack commented.
Furthermore, Bloomberg’s Galaxy Crypto index plummeted with almost 30%, pushing out any potential investors.
Technically, the massive price dump is caused by long position liquidation. Bitcoin alone saw $655 million worth of BTC liquidated on only on BitMEX. Crypto analyst Joseph Young rang the bell, citing that this move would further reduce the ground beneath Bitcoin. Also, Whale Alert reported of $10,7 billion worth of Bitcoin were transferred between wallets on Binance, and $11 billion worth of BTC was transferred from a not-yet specified wallet to the Huobi crypto exchange. Such major coin relocation means that crypto whales are moving their saving, which could further be a catalyst for price fluctuations.
Ethereum (ETH), the second-largest cryptocurrency to date, saw a 31% price decline, to trade as low as 134.85 from a price point of $249.98 just a week before. Strangely, trading volumes for Ethereum do not show significant increases, as with Bitcoin, for example. The altcoin leader lost a total of 35% over the course of the past week, resulting in a total gain wipeout from the start of 2020.
The other top-10 cryptocurrencies also record over 25% price decreases. Ripple went beneath $0.20 to trade at $0,156224 as of press time. Bitcoin Cash (BCH) is down 33%, Bitcoin SV (BSV) lost 36% of its price, while ChainLink (LINK) nears a 40% price wipeout.
On the other hand, stablecoins see increased interest among crypto traders. The world’s largest stablecoin, Tether, broke over the $1,00 barrier, trading at $1,03. Trading volumes also increased, reaching $65+billion, which is one of the best scores for Tether in 2020. The main reason for Tether’s volume increase is the fact most of the traders use the stablecoin as a gateway for buying and selling cryptocurrencies.
USD Coin (USDC) also recorded increased interest, reaching over $1,5 billion in daily trading volumes, which is an all-time high for the stablecoin. Paxos Standard (PAX), True USD (TUSD), as well as Binance USD (BUSD) also received a welcoming push, further cementing the role of stablecoins in crypto trading.
|Exchange||Batching Status||Segwit (p2sh)||Send to bech32|
|SegWit Enabled Wallets||Wallet Type|
|Ledger Nano S||Hardware|
|bc1.... (Segwit)||No (no support for them yet)|
|3... address (Segwit)||to…|
|bc1.... (Segwit)||No (no support for them yet)|
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If you are planning to place assets into cryptographic types of cash like Bitcoin or Ether, in any case, you do not understand where to start, this Gemini exchange review will help you with choosing.submitted by cryptoerapro to u/cryptoerapro [link] [comments]
Gemini Bitcoin Exchange Review 2020
You need yourself to be a productive advanced cash intermediary. By what technique will you become? To help you here's an exchange review, which will give every one of you the low down information required for a powerful enthusiasm for one of the most trusted in stages the Gemini Exchange.
We should find all the more right currently review
Gemini Review :
About Gemini Exchange
Twin kin developed Gemini Winklevoss in the year 2014. The Gemini exchange is arranged in New York. The Gemini crypto exchange is open in essentially all US states, similarly as UK, Canada, Puerto Rico, Singapore, South Korea, and Hong Kong. In 2016, Gemini transformed into the world's recently approved Ether exchange.
It positions 82th greatest exchange on earth as showed by 24-hour volume on Coinmarketcap. While Gemini Bitcoin and Gemini Ethereum trading volumes are high, the exchange is endeavoring with all undertakings to fight with those stages offering a predominant piece of the cryptographic types of cash, for instance, Binance.
Gemini offers crypto to fiat portions and a BTC/ETH grandstand, which makes it a quick contender to any similarity to Coinbase, Bitstamp, and Kraken. At present, it is one of the most respected and ensure about exchanges open. This is in light of the fact that it has more features to help secure customers against developers. Also, it is one exchange for the CBOE Bitcoin future settlement. Gemini Mobile application is directly available, which is amazingly basic and versatile to use.
How to use Gemini?
1) Go to the official site and snap the "Register" tab on the upper right corner.
Enter your name, email address, and mystery word for your own record. While affirming your email address, it is critical to :
Affirm your email address and enter both your region and phone number, by then you can set up 2-Factor Authentication (2FA) which will be an additional layer of security to your record.
Incorporate your monetary equalization. Starting at now, Gemini recognizes simply bank moves and wires, as a methodology for putting away holds.
To check your record, move your organization ID proof. This will help you with executing and trade US Dollars. Moreover, it will help Gemini with as per the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) and Anti Money Laundering (AML) rules. The affirmation time may run from a couple to a couple of days.
Subsequent to completing of all the above strategies, you can use your record for financing.
gemini crypto exchange
2) Deposit Currency
In the Menu, click Transfer Funds, by then find a good pace Bank Transfer and Exchange. Enter the whole you have to store here. Moreover, note $500 consistently is the most extraordinary most extreme for Bank moves.
3) Trading Bitcoin and Ethereum
As you store by methods for bank move, they are quickly available for trading. you can purchase by encountering the menu and picking your supported trading pair. For example, for Bitcoin BTC/USD similarly as Ethereum ETH/USD.
In the wake of embeddings the expense and sum it will process your buy demand. There is another choice to trade by methods for the business community which has exhibit orders gave by various customers.
After the fulfillment of your purchase, your record will be acknowledged with your Ethereum just as Bitcoin purchases. You can sell your computerized cash on the Gemini crypto exchange. Regardless of the way that you can't make a withdrawal until your bank move has been completely arranged.
gemini sponsor organization
By and by, For most trade strategies, there are no limitations on trades. In any case, Automated Clearing House (ACH) moves have the greatest store most remote purpose of $500 day and $15,000 consistently for singular record holders. Associations have a state of restriction for making ACH stores of $10,000 consistently or $300,000 consistently.
There is a Gemini business focus that runs 24*7. Here, you can have indistinguishable number of solicitations from you wish to have, with a variety of trading choices. These include:
Market Orders – With the present best open worth, the solicitations here starting dealing with quickly against resting orders.
Purpose of repression Orders – The sum is filled at or better than a given expense. The sum which isn't dispatched lays on the solicitation book diligently until it is filled or dropped.
Brief or Cancel (IOC) Limit Orders – The sum is filled at or better than a given expense. The sum which isn't filled rapidly is dropped and doesn't lay on the perpetual solicitation book.
Maker or Cancel (MOC) Limit Orders – The sum lays on the solicitation book continually at a foreordained expense. Furthermore, the entire solicitation is dropped if there is any sum that can be filled immediately.
All solicitations made on this stage are totally sponsored and fill in as a full hold exchange. In any case, there is no edge trading Gemini. Despite that, reliably the customer's record equality should have more balance than the exceptional excitement on demand books. Also, all open solicitations decline your available leveling until they are fulfilled or dropped
In the event that there ought to be an event of moves, Gemini crypto exchange has a low cost technique and stage customers can store Bitcoin, Ether, at freed from charges for both bank and wire moves. In any case, banks will charge a cost for the customers to wire money to their Gemini account. Withdrawals on the stage are free and all customers will have 30 free withdrawals for each calendar month.
Any withdrawals more than this total will pull in costs comparable to the mining charges payable on either sort out. The costs are around 0.001 BTC or 100,000 Satoshi per trade on the Bitcoin Network and 0 GWei or 0 ETH per trade on the Ethereum Network.
0.25% is the trading costs for both sellers(makers) and buyers(takers). If it shows up at certain trade volumes, charges will be reduced. The maker charge is 0% for 30-day trading volumes that outperform 5,000 Bitcoin or 100,000 Ether. For a comparable trading entirety, the taker run after will bubble to 0.10%.
Gemini uses dynamic maker and taker charge or reimbursement timetable, and sellers can get reimbursement on liquidity-creation trades. The particular entireties depend upon net trading volumes and the buy and sell extent over a multi day time allotment. The data are adjusted as expected and more information on charges can be found here.
Concerning purchases, the base purchase whole for Bitcoin is 0.00001 BTC, or 1000 satoshis, for Ether, the base sum is 0 .001 ETH
Bitcoin Gemini Reviews, is a strong exchange that has a better than average reputation in everyone. The exchange goes about as a way into the universe of cryptographic cash trading. This may be in light of the fact that various customers first quit concerning purchasing Bitcoin and Ethereum. In comprehension to Coinbase, Gemini has a near space. Wherein it allows its customers to make trade clearly to and from their records.
Gemini is a not too bad choice, for people looking to securely trade either Bitcoin or Ethereum. The exchange is a potential decision for new competitors to the market similarly as logically settled sellers who like to make trades by methods for their monetary adjusts.
Dec 17, 2019: Well realized cash related pro association State Street picked Gemini exchange for the new propelled asset pilot adventure.
Nov 19, 2019: Gemini exchange wanders into NFT's and acquired Nifty Gateway Solution, a phase to buy Non-Fungible Tokens.
Nov 14, 2019: The exchange added Stop-Limit to the solicitations being executed on the stage.
Sep 11, 2019: Gemini dispatches Gemini Custody with 18 cryptographic types of cash
Sep 5, 2019: Gemini Clearing™, a totally electronic clearing and settlement answer for off-exchange exhibited by the stage
Aud 27, 2019: Gemini Joins the Silvergate Exchange Network
Aug 22, 2019: Gemini loosens up and reaches to Australia
April 15, 2019: Gemini wallet support Segwit
Gemini Bitcoin Exchange Review
Rundown: How to Buy Bitcoins by means of Gemini
Register a record at Gemini and check email code sent to you.
Set up two-factor validation (2FA).
Give checked ID as a major aspect of the confirmation procedure.
Store cash by clicking "Move Funds", "Store into Exchange" and afterward picking the sort of bank move.
Snap "Purchase" catch and round out the buy structure to get BTC.
Is Gemini Safe?
Gemini is extremely worried about its clients' wellbeing, in this manner it utilize three arrangements of security...
Gemini Comparison with Other Exchanget
To exchange bitcoins you have to initially peruse and think about various BTC trades...
In Which Countries Is Gemini Available?
You can arrange bitcoins through Gemini nearly in any nation, yet discover where you can't...
Guide: Buying BTCs at Gemini
It is anything but difficult to purchase bitcoins on Gemini trade, knowing the essential standards and prerequisites...
Discover to what extent the exchange takes, how to pull back BTCs and what strategies for...
Practically equivalent to Bitcoin Exchanges
We have arranged a rundown of trades, notwithstanding Gemini, that can assist you with requesting bitcoins...
With developing worth and system, bitcoin is ready to turn into the main online resource in the realm of ventures.
Gemini bitcoin trade survey
This article is worried about one of the most well known trades with regards to BTC exchange, Gemini.
What Is Gemini?
Gemini is one of the realized digital money trades that offer an assortment of exchange apparatuses for speculators that have some involvement with the business. The organization that claims the stage is enrolled as LLC in New York State, USA, offering USD to BTC and USD to ETH exchange trade.
Purchase BTC at Gemini
Propelled in 2015, Gemini offers two unmistakable commercial centers, them being:
customary trade administrations;
Upon its appearance, the stage offered its administrations in the US just, bit by bit including different nations all the while. The organization is possessed by the Winklevoss twins, who guarantee that they are have about 1% of the complete BTC volume.
Winklevoss siblings are Gemini's proprietors
With regards to the wellbeing of your assets, Gemini applies three arrangements of safety efforts that should be referenced. To start with, the stage applies advanced money safety efforts by offering hot and cold stockpiling wallets, where cold wallets have multisig capacities to forestall hacking endeavors at your equalizations.
The subsequent measure is identified with the exchange where the entirety of the exchanges at Gemini are led through pre-financed accounts, implying that merchants and purchasers can't post orders on the off chance that they don't have adequate BTC or fiat monetary forms in their parities. Finally, the site security comprises of two-factor verification (2FA) and HTTP encryption of all data in regards to merchants and stage's exchanges from outsiders.
Accessible Payment Methods
As of now, Gemini acknowledges stores communicated distinctly in ACH (for US dealers) and wire moves (for every other person) communicated in USD. Credit or check cards, money stores, PayPal and numerous different alternatives are wanted to be remembered for the future however are not accessible at the present time.
Buy bitcoin by means of wire move
You ought to buy in to the Gemini news source since the organization will promote the new store strategy through that channel of correspondence.
Shouldn't something be said about Fees?
While saving or pulling back your assets communicated in fiat or computerized monetary forms, dealers would find that the administrations are done totally free. Then again, Gemini charges exchange expenses are charged dependent on a month to month net exchange volume. Taker charges can extend from 0.15% to 0.25% while creator expenses from 0% to 0.25%.
Expenses at the trade
Does Gemini Have Limits?
Cryptographic money and wire stores and withdrawals don't have any constraints forced on dealers, implying that in the event that you utilize the said administrations, you can buy, sell and pull back bitcoins with no deterrents. Singular American financial specialists utilizing ACH move, then again, have $500 every day and $15.000 month to month while institutional individuals have $10.000 day by day and $300.000 month to month store limits.
No restrictions for purchasing bitcoin
When thinking about exchanging at any trade, you should hope to analyze the administrations, expenses and impediments with other comparative stages. In this manner, we have assembled an examination investigation where we benchmarked Gemini against two other well known decisions with regards to BTC buy: Kraken and Coinbase.
Gemini versus Kraken
Kraken, much the same as Gemini, acknowledges bank moves just, with the significant contrast being that Kraken permits 5 fiat cash stores. Notwithstanding bitcoin, there are 14 more altcoins that you can exchange with at Kraken while the two trades force check on their customers as they are both controlled organizations.
Gemini versus Kraken
Kraken is fundamentally the same as Gemini as far as expenses, as creatotaker charges go somewhere in the range of 0% and 0.26%. Bank moves do accompany little expenses at Kraken while Gemini acknowledges stores for nothing. In conclusion, while Gemini exchanges two or three nations in particular, Kraken is all around accessible.
Coinbase versus Gemini
Coinbase is viewed as one of the biggest bitcoin suppliers on the planet, offering its administrations in 32 nations, USA notwithstanding. The installment strategies at Coinbase are PayPal, bank moves and credit/check cards, two more than Gemini.
Request bitcoins by means of Coinbase trade
Confirmation is an absolute necessity have at Coinbase, much like in Gemini while expenses are a ton lower at Gemini, as you pay between 1.49% to 3.49% from exchange's an incentive at Coinbase. The two trades offer BTC vaults and wallet administrations while Coinbase additionally exchanges with Litecoin which are inaccessible at Gemini.
Gemini BTC Exchange in Different Countries
Gemini's administrations are accessible in a bunch of nations around the globe, them being the US (5 states not upheld), Canada, Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore and the United Kingdom. The five US expresses that are not bolstered are Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Oregon and Wisconsin.
Gemini trade in various nations
Is It Legal?
Gemini is an American LLC that adheres to New York Banking Law guidelines, actualizing BSA (Bank Secrecy Act) and AML (Anti-Money Laundry Compliance Program) arrangements, implying that customary reviews of the BSA/AML programs are being executed. Moreover, the firm requires all merchants to have reserves pre-saved before the exchange.
Bitcoin Gemini Price, is legitimate
Another significant factor of the stage's lawfulness is the way that since its beginning, Gemini has promptly accessible money related report dating 7 years back.
Does Gemini Support Its Customers?
Concerning the client service, Gemini has a thorough FAQ page where a large portion of the exchanging questions have been replied. Notwithstanding the FAQ, you can likewise top off a shape and present a solicitation to the Gemini group with respect to any issue that you may look on the stage.
Gemini client service
Because of the regular upkeep of the site's administrations, Gemini has a "Status" page where financial specialists can see which administrations and API instruments are working right now and which are definitely not.
Manual for Buy Bitcoins from Gemini
When you have gotten the cash at your Gemini account, click "Purchase" button on the dashboard page.
Buy page for bitcoins at Gemini
Presently, round out the structure on the right, giving request type, volume or estimation of BTC you wish to get and click "Purchase" to get bitcoins in your record immediately. Try to check the BTC cost at the upper left piece of the "Purchase" page to ensure it has not changed at the time you have begun the buy procedure.
It is totally allowed to enroll a record at Gemini bitcoin trade and the procedure begins once you click "Register" button at the upper right corner of the site. Give your complete name, email address and secret key in subsequent stage and snap "Make My Account".
Make account at Gemini
You will get an email code which you should duplicate glue into the Gemini's check page.
Contribution of enactment code on Bitcoin Gemini Registration
The accompanying advances will open up for you to finish, in this way you have to arrangement your 2FA security apparatus, include a financial balance and give checked ID to finish the enrollment methodology.
To what extent Should I Wait for Verification?
Check stage can take between an hour and a day, contingent upon various enlistment applications Gemini has right now you have begun the procedure. You ought to set up every single essential report before you start and arm yourself with persistence as a stage would set aside effort to process your data.
Confirmation process at Gemini
Would you be able to Get Bitcoins Without Verification?
At the enlistment page, you are required to check your personality and frog your financial balance. When you have presented the records, you can't enter the stage's exchange page until the help affirms your subtleties. In this way, it is unimaginable to expect to buy supply of bitcoins without confirmation.
Obligatory confirmation before purchasing BTCs at Gemini
How to Add Money to Account?
When you have finished the enrollment and confirmation of your record, click button "Move Funds", situated in the top segment of your dashboard page. In following stage, click "Store Into Exchange" and pick either USD or Wire alternative, contingent upon what financial balance you have included at enrollment stage.
Add assets to Gemini account
You can likewise store bitcoins in your Gemini wallet too.
Store BTCs in the Gemini wallet
At the last phase of wire move subsidizing process, you have to give bank's wiring data, for example, your record number and other significant data that can be found by clicking "Bank Settings".
Give bank's wiring data
When data has been given, basically click "Store" button which will show up at the base of the page.
Secure Your Account
Keep the entirety of your record and wallet passwords out of the programmer's compass by continually evolving them. Monitor the new secret key by keeping in touch with them down on a bit of paper as to not overlook them meanwhile.
Record with 2FA on trade
You as of now have 2FA from the enlistment stage and don't give your private data to some other dealer on the stage.
To what extent Does It Take to Make Transaction?
It takes 4 to 5 days to store assets in your Gemini account while exchanges themselves are done following you the exchange started. Diverse request types have distinctive length, contingent upon what dealer wishes to accomplish.
Sitting tight for exchanges on the trade
Would i be able to Buy Bitcoin with PayPal at Gemini?
Now, brokers can't utilize PayPal as store technique at Gemini. You ought to buy in to the trade's news channel as to get warnings if the strategy opens up to store alternative later on.
Does Gemini Have a BTC Wallet?
The stage offers two kinds of wallet administrations, one being "hot" wallet and another being vault stockpiling. Both are based just, with the principle contrast being that vault stockpiling gives extra security keys that are utilized while moving bitcoins all through the wallet. Along these lines, vault administrations are esteemed as more secure than the standard BTC wallet.
Pulling back Your Bitcoins from Gemini
At the dashboard page, click "Move Funds" and afterward "Pull back From Exchange" to begin the procedure. Pick bitcoins to continue towards the withdrawal structure. Determine the measure of BTC you with to escape the trade and give your wallet address. Snap "Survey Withdrawal" and check the data. When you are fulfilled, click "Affirm" to end the procedure. Your coins will show up inside 24 hours to your ideal area.
Pull back BTC from Gemini
Instructions to Order BTC with Credit/Debit Card at Gemini
As with PayPal, it is preposterous to expect to buy bitcoins with the assistance of credit or charge cards at Gemini, since the choice isn't accessible right now. Stay aware of trade's news and declarations as the CC/DC choice may open up later on.
Gemini Mobile App
Portable stages are yet to be created by Gemini, implying that exchange is accessible on perusing stage as it were. Watch out for the declaration, as the organization may make the push towards telephone exchange not so distant future.
Purchase BTC just on Gemini perusing stage
Aside from Gemini, we at BitcoinBestBuy have checked on numerous different stages that can assist you with getting bitcoins effectively and securely. They all change regarding local accessibility, expenses, buy strategies and confirmation necessities, so make a point to check different articles also.
Get BTC at digital money stages
Coinbase Exchange Review
Being one of the biggest BTC exchanging stages the world, we made a survey of their charges, store choices and other important data with respect to the trade. We have likewise given bit by bit controls on the best way to buy and pull back assets and coins from Coinbase.
Full Review Coinbase Bitcoin Gemini Exchange
Find out About Kraken
Kraken is another trade that offers bitcoins through bank moves and its administrations are all inclusive accessible. We made a survey of Kraken's advantages and disadvantages, giving our customers a diagram of the trade as far as expenses the organization charges, check prerequisites and buy procedures of the stage.
submitted by D-platform to u/D-platform [link] [comments]
1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?
2. Bitcoin’s core featuresFor a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.
Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) modelA UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.
Nakamoto consensusIn the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.
Block productionThe Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.
Block time and mining difficultyBlock time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.
What are orphan blocks?In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.
3. Bitcoin’s additional features
Segregated Witness (SegWit)Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.
Lightning NetworkLightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.
Schnorr Signature upgrade proposalElliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.
4. Economics and supply distributionThe Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
|Exchange||Segwit Status||Batching Status|
|SegWit Enabled Wallets||Wallet Type|
|Ledger Nano S||Hardware|
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